Many Americans don’t have to worry about giving Uncle Sam part of their hard-earned cash for their income taxes this year.
An estimated 45.3% of American households — roughly 77.5 million — will pay no federal individual income tax, according to data for the 2015 tax year from the Tax Policy Center, a nonpartisan Washington-based research group. (Note that this does not necessarily mean they won’t owe their states income tax.)
Roughly half pay no federal income tax because they have no taxable income, and the other roughly half get enough tax breaks to erase their tax liability, explains Roberton Williams, a senior fellow at the Tax Policy Center.
Despite the fact that rich people paying little in the way of income taxes makes plenty of headlines, this is the exception to the rule: The top 1% of taxpayers pay a higher effective income-tax rate than any other group (around 23%, according to a report released by the Tax Policy Center in 2014) — nearly seven times higher than those in the bottom 50%.
On average, those in the bottom 40% of the income spectrum end up getting money from the government. Meanwhile, the richest 20% of Americans, by far, pay the most in income taxes, forking over nearly 87% of all the income tax collected by Uncle Sam.
The top 1% of Americans, who have an average income of more than $2.1 million, pay 43.6% of all the federal individual income tax in the U.S.; the top 0.1% — just 115,000 households, whose average income is more than $9.4 million — pay more than 20% of it.
When it comes to all federal taxes — individual income, payroll, excise, corporate income and estate taxes — the distributions of who pays what is more spread out. This is partially because nearly everyone pays excise taxes, which includes taxes on gasoline, alcohol and cigarettes.
In 2015, the Internal Revenue Service audited only 0.84% of all individual tax returns. So the odds are generally pretty low that your return will be picked for review.
That said, your chances of being audited or otherwise hearing from the IRS escalate depending on various factors. Math errors may draw an IRS inquiry, but they’ll rarely lead to a full-blown exam. Check out these red flags that could increase the chances that the IRS will give the return of a retired taxpayer special, and probably unwelcome, attention.
MAKING A LOT OF MONEY
FAILING TO REPORT ALL TAXABLE INCOME
TAKING HIGHER-THAN-AVERAGE DEDUCTIONS
CLAIMING LARGE CHARITABLE DEDUCTIONS
NOT TAKING REQUIRED MINIMUM DISTRIBUTIONS
CLAIMING RENTAL LOSSES
FAILING TO REPORT GAMBLING WINNINGS OR CLAIMING BIG LOSSES
WRITING OFF A LOSS FOR A HOBBY
NEGLECTING TO REPORT A FOREIGN BANK ACCOUNT
Written by IRS Audit Red Flags for Retirees of Kiplinger
Applying for a home loan these days requires detailed documentation. Expect to show everything from full tax returns, pay stubs, bank statements, to letters of explanation regarding your credit, debt, income and assets. However, that leaves quite a bit of room for challenges to pop up. Here are four common roadblocks you may encounter in the mortgage underwriting process, and how you can fix them.
1. Changes in Your Income
Let’s say the underwriter at the loan company determines — based upon your pay stubs and tax returns — that your income is lower than what the loan originator said it was. An easy way to offset that is a written verification of employment (VOE), which specifies and breaks down your income. This is especially important if you’re an hourly wage earner with gyrating income – such as varying hours worked, bonuses, or overtime – that has not been consistent for most of the past two years.
Lenders like to see two years of more or less consistent income history, but there are ways to work with that. If you don’t have this, you’ll need a lender who can work with your ancillary income with less than 24 months. This is the type of thing that can make or break your loan, especially with income outside of a traditional fixed salary.
2. Your Debt Eats Up Too Much of Your Income
A lender considers what your payment-to-income ratio will be with the new mortgage, so you can encounter a problem if your consumer debts, such as student loans, credit cards and auto loans, are just too large for the mortgage amount you’re applying for. If your debt-to-income ratio exceeds 45%, to still qualify, you’ll need to make a change in any of the following ways:
Reduce the payment on the mortgage
Reduce and/or remove the payments on the consumer loans
Re-evaluate the income
Here’s how your payment-to-income ratio — also called the debt-to-income ratio — is calculated: Take the minimum payments you have on all current consumer obligations, add those to your proposed total mortgage payment and divide the sum of those numbers into your monthly gross income.
3. Paying Off Your Debt… the ‘Wrong’ Way
Let’s say you have credit card payments totaling $300 per month on a $10,000 balance spread out over two to three credit cards. You decide to pay off those credit cards to reduce your payment liabilities, thus lowering your payment-to-income ratio.
This can be very tricky if not done correctly, and can very easily skew the underwriter’s perception of what your liabilities truly will be by closing. When you pay off consumer debts to qualify for a mortgage, the account(s) must be closed as well. This can be problematic, as closing credit cards can have a negative impact on a healthy credit score. It is true you could simply re-open the credit cards after you close on the mortgage anyway, but lenders do not view it that way. They assume you’ll close the cards and not open them later on.
An alternative option involves getting an updated credit report that shows that the debts are paid off in full without any payments due. The key is to make absolutely sure each creditor whom you paid off in full specifically reports to each credit bureau a zero balance and a zero payment due.
4. Negative Events On Your Credit Report
Let’s face it — mortgage loan originators are human, and they make mistakes just like everyone else. Let’s say your mortgage officer did not ask or was unaware of you having a previous short sale in the past four years. If it happened within the past four years, this can stop your conventional loan in its tracks, which could mean you’d have to move to an alternative loan program, such as FHA.
Lenders run each borrower through a comprehensive background screening through multiple fraud databases, which would identify any other property you were tied to in the past seven years. If any other unaccounted-for properties pop up, documentation will be required to either show the property is no longer yours, or it was sold, or the carrying cost of that property would be factored into your payment-to-income ratio.
If you are not sure about something financially related to your loan application, just be sure to ask your loan professional. Should any unforeseen roadblocks pop up in your mortgage loan process, call your loan officer right away to explain the situation and get a read on what type of documentation will be needed to satisfy the condition and/or the problem. An experienced loan professional — who has experience working with the type of mortgage you’re trying to obtain – can guide you through to a successful closing.